Standard For Fluorosilicic Acid
American Water Works Association

AWWA B703a-13 Addenda to ANSI/AWWA B703-11
Standard for Fluorosilicic Acid
(April 2013)

Approved by AWWA Board of Directors Jan. 20, 2013. Approved by American National Standards Institute Jan. 29, 2013.
Copyright 2013 American Water Works Association. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information or retrieval system, except in the form of brief excerpts or quotations for review purposes, without the written permission of the publisher.
AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. It is not a specification. AWWA standards describe minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and administrative information normally contained in specifications. The AWWA standards usually contain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard. Until each optional feature is specified by the user, the product or service is not fully defined. AWWA publication of a standard does not constitute endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certify, or approve any product. The use of AWWA standards is entirely voluntary. This standard does not supersede or take precedence over or displace any applicable law, regulation, or codes of any governmental authority. AWWA standards are intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that the product described will provide satisfactory service. When AWWA revises or withdraws this standard, an official notice of action will be placed on the first page of the Official Notice section of Journal AWWA. The action becomes effective on the first day of the month following the month of Journal AWWA publication of the official notice.

American National Standard
An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether that person has approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review, and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions. Producers of goods made in conformity with an American National Standard are encouraged to state on their own responsibility in advertising and promotional materials or on tags or labels that the goods are produced in conformity with particular American National Standards.

Caution notice: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approval date on the front cover of this standard indicates completion of the ANSI approval process. This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. ANSI procedures require that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036; (212) 642-4900, or e-mailing

This AWWA content is the product of thousands of hours of work by your fellow water professionals. Revenue from the sales of this AWWA material supports its ongoing development. Unauthorized distribution, either electronic or photocopied, is illegal and hinders AWWA's mission to support the water community.

This foreword is for information only and is not a part of ANSI*/AWWA B703.I.
Community water fluoridation is an effective, safe, andinexpensive way to prevent tooth decay. Since the first fluoridation installation during 1945, studies have shown that this method of fluoride delivery benefits Americans of all ages and socioeconomic status. Dental decay can be reduced by 20 to 40 percent among children who have consumed fluoridated water since birth. Fluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) is one of several fluoride compounds presently being added to drinking water to reduce the incidence of dental caries...
Fluorosilicic acid is produced as a co-product in the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid and other phosphate fertilizers. The raw material, phosphate rock, contains fluoride and silica and is treated with sulfuric acid, which evolves the gases silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). These gases are passed through scrubbers and react with water to form fluorosilicic acid. This acid is the principal raw material in the production of all silicofluoride salts. It is also used in the ceramic, brewing, paint, and metallurgical industries...

I.C. Acceptance. In September 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) entered into a cooperative agreement with a consortium led by NSF International (NSF) to develop voluntary third-party consensus standards and a certification program for direct and indirect drinking water additives. Other members of the original consortium included the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF, now Water Research Foundation † ) and the Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers (COSHEM). The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA) joined later. In April 1990, USEPA formally withdrew its list of acceptable drinking water additives, and regulatory oversight of direct and indirect drinking water additives passed to the process developed by the consortium under the leadership of NSF.

In the United States, authority to regulate products for use in, or in contact with, drinking water rests with individual states.ǂ Local agencies may choose to impose requirements more stringent than those required by the state. To evaluate the health effects of products and drinking water additives from such products, state and local agencies may use various references, including two standards developed under the direction of NSF, NSF§/ANSI 60, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Effects (NSF/ANSI 60), and NSF/ANSI 61, Drinking Water System Components— Health Effects (NSF/ANSI 60). NSF, in cooperation with ASDWA, does a biennial survey of the US state and Canadian provinces/territories to determine which states and provinces/territories require, by legislation, regulations or policies that products and drinking water additives be evaluated by NSF/ANSI 60 and 61. Survey results from 2009 show adoption of NSF/ANSI 60 by 47 states and 9 provinces/territories, and adoption of NSF/ANSI 61 by 46 states and 11 provinces/territories.

Several organizations are accredited by national or international third-party agen- cies to certify products in accordance with NSF/ANSI 60. States, provinces/territories, local agencies, and water utilities can determine which certification organizations are acceptable within their individual jurisdictions.

* AWWA Manual M4, Water Fluoridation Principles and Practices, AWWA, Denver, Colo.
† Water Research Foundation, 6666 W. Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235.
ǂ Persons outside the United States should contact the appropriate authority having jurisdiction.
§ NSF International, 789 N. Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

Annex A, "Toxicology Review and Evaluation Procedures," to NSF/ANSI 60 does not stipulate a total allowable concentration (TAC) or a single product allowable concentration (SPAC) value of a contaminant for substances not regulated by a USEPA final maximum contaminant level (MCL). The TACs and SPACs of an unspecified list of "unregulated contaminants" are based on toxicity testing guidelines (noncarcino- gens) and risk characterization methodology (carcinogens). Use of Annex A procedures may not always be identical, depending on the certifier.

ANSI/AWWA B703 addresses additives requirements in Sec. 4.3 of the standard. The transfer of contaminants from chemicals to processed water or to residual solids is becoming a problem of greater concern. Sec. 4.3.3 recommends that material covered by this standard be certified by an accredited agency for compliance with NSF/ANSI 60. As noted above, most states and provinces/territories require that direct additives be certified to NSF/ANSI 60. A user of this standard should consult with the state, province/territory, or local agency having jurisdiction for certification requirements, but the user may require certification even in the absence of such a requirement by the agency having jurisdiction...

III. Use of This Standard. It is the responsibility of the user of an AWWA standard to determine that the products described in that standard are suitable for use in the particular application being considered.
III.A. Purchaser Options and Alternatives. The following information should be provided by the purchaser.
1. Standard used—that is, ANSI/AWWA B703, Fluorosilicic Acid, of latest revision.
2. Whether compliance with NSF/ANSI 60, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Effects, is required.
3. Quantity required.
4. Details of other federal, state or provincial, and local requirements (Section 4).
5. Concentration (strength of acid desired) (Sec. 4.2). The acid shall contain between 20 and 30 percent H2SiF6 by weight. Where variations in acid strength are acceptable, arrangements should be made between the purchaser and the supplier as to the method of payment, based on the aggregated acid content.
6. Whether the purchaser will reject product from containers or packaging with missing or damaged seals. The purchaser may reject product from bulk containers or packages with missing or damaged seals unless the purchaser's tests of representative samples, conducted in accordance with Sec. 5.2, demonstrate that the product meets the standard. Failure to meet the standard or the absence of, or irregularities in, seals may be sufficient cause to reject a shipment.
7. Form of shipment—bulk or package, package type, and package size (Sec. 6.2.2).
8. Whether alternative security measures have been adopted to replace or aug- ment the security measures set out in Sec. 6.2.5 and 6.2.6.
9. Affidavit of compliance or certified analyses, or both, if required (Sec. 6.3).
III.B. Modification to Standard. Any modification to the provisions, definitions, or terminology in this standard must be provided by the purchaser...

AWWA Standard
Fluorosilicic Acid
Section 1: General
Sec. 1.1 Scope
This standard describes fluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) for use in the treatment of potable water.
Sec. 1.2 Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to provide the minimum requirements for fluorosilicic acid, including physical, chemical, sampling, packaging, shipping, and testing requirements.
Sec. 1.3 Application
This standard can be referenced in documents for purchasing and receiving fluorosilicic acid and can be used as a guide for testing the physical and chemi- cal properties of fluorosilicic acid samples. The stipulations of this standard apply when this document has been referenced and only to fluorosilicic acid used in the treatment of potable water.
This standard references the following documents. In their latest editions, they form a part of this standard to the extent specified within the standard. In any case of conflict, the requirements of this standard shall prevail.
NSF*/ANSI† 60, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Effects.
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA,ǂ AWWA, and WEF.§
* NSF International, 789 N. Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.
ߪ American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
ǂ American Public Health Association, 800 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20001.
§ Water Environment Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314.

2. Manufacturer: The party that manufactures, fabricates, or produces materials or products...
4. Purchaser: The person, company, or organization that purchases any materials or work to be performed.
5. Supplier: The party that supplies material or services. A supplier may or may not be the manufacturer...

Materials shall comply with the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water At and other federal regulations for potable water systems as applicable.
Sec.4.1. Physical Requirements
4.1.1. Suspended matter. The fluorosilicic acid supplied according to this standard shall be clean and free of visible suspended matter.
4.1.2. Color. The fluorosilicic acid supplied according to this standard shall be water white to amber. Amber shall be determined as material with a maximum of 200 color units in accordance with Method 2120B, visual comparison method.*
Sec. 4.2 Chemical Requirements
The fluorosilicic acid shall contain between 20 and 30 percent fluorosilicic acid by weight unless specified otherwise by the purchaser.
Sec. 4.3 Impurities†
4.3.1 General. The material supplied according to this standard shall contain no mineral or organic substances in quantities capable of producing deleterious or injurious effects on the health of those consuming water that has been properly treated with the material.
4.3.2 Free acid content. The fluorosilicic acid supplied according to this standard shall contain a maximum of 1 percent free acids (other than fluorosilicic acid), expressed as HF (hydrofluoric acid).
4.3.3 Product certifications. Fluorosilicic acid is a direct additive used in the treatment of potable water. This material should be certified in accordance with the requirements of NSF/ANSI 60. Appendix B lists the impurities typically checked under NSF/ANSI 60 for fluorosilicic acid, the US and Canadian drinking water standards for those impurities, and the single product allowable concentration (SPAC) for each impurity. The SPAC is the allowable concentration of the impurity in the treated water when the material is added to give a fluoride concentration of 1.2 mg/L.
4.3.4 Additional impurity limits. Additional impurity limits may be specified by the purchaser to ensure the material supplied is suitable for water treatment. If additional impurity limits are specified, the purchaser must state the test methodology to be used to determine compliance with the additional limits.
* Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.
† See Sec. I.C of the foreword.

Section 5: Verification...
Sec. 5.3 Notice of Nonconformance...
5.3.2 Material originating outside of North America. On request of the purchaser, the supplier shall inform the purchaser of the origin of the fluorosilicic acid to be provided. The purchaser may request from the supplier a written statement presenting the steps the supplier will take to ensure the material to be supplied conforms to the requirements of this standard and NSF/ANSI 60...

Sec. 6.3 Affidavit of Compliance or Certified Analyses
The purchaser may require (1) an affidavit from the manufacturer or supplier that the material provided complies with applicable requirements of this standard; or (2) a certified analysis of the material at the time of delivery detailing the desired items.

AWWA is the authoritative resource for knowledge, information, and advocacy to improve the quality and supply of water in North America and beyond. AWWA is the largest organization of water professionals in the world. AWWA advances public health, safety, and welfare by uniting the efforts of the full spectrum of the entire water community. Through our collective strength, we become better stewards of water for the greatest good of people and the environment.

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